Oaks of the World

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  Quercus petraea
Author (Matt.)Liebl. 1784 Fl. Fuld. 403
Synonyms auzin Secondat ex Bosc 1807
calcarea Troitzky 1931
columbaria Vuk. 1883
conglomerata Pers. 1807
coriacea Bechst. 1814
coronensis Schur 1866
decipiens Behlen in Bechstein 1814
longipetioleata Schur 1866
mas Thore 1803
mespilifolia Wallr. 1822
petioleata Schur 1857
petraea var. laciniata (Lam.) C.Vicioso 1950
regalis Burnett ex Endl. 1848
robur var. petraea Mattuschka 1779 nom. invalid.
robur var. laciniata Lam. 1785
robur var. platyphylla Lam. 1785
robur subsp sessiliflora (Salisb.) A.DC 1864
sessiliflora Salisb.1796, nom. illeg.
sessilis Ehrh. ex Shur 1857
sphaerocarpa Vuk. in Schlosser 1876
sublobata Kitoibel 1814
Local names sessile oak; Durmast oak;
Range Europe; West Asia; in France, does not occur in Alps, South and South-West; at higher elevations than Q.robur;
Growth habit 20 m tall usually; may reach 45 m tall, with trunk to 2 m in diameter;
Leaves 6-12 (-16) x 4-7 (-9) cm; stiff; wider near the middle of the blade; base slightly truncate, or oblique; 5-8 pairs of rounded lobes, with sinuses reaching sometimes half way to the midrib; hairless (or a few bulbous and solitary trichomes), shiny, dark green above; dull, pale green beneath, with sessile fascicled hairs (rays 60-120 µm long) at axils of veins, scattered 4-rayed stellate hairs, and a lack of wax on the stigmas; 5-7(-8) vein pairs; inconspicuous tertiary veins; sinusal veins present;  petiole 1-3 cm long, yellowish green, hairless, sulcate above; 
Flowers April-May; male catkins golden brown, drooping, 5-8 cm long, pubescent; pistillate inflorescences towards tip of new shoot, 2-6 together;
Fruits acorn 1.5-4 cm long, 1-2.5 cm in diameter, ovoid; enclosed 1/3 by cup; cup sessile or nearly so, with appressed, brownish, pubescent, oval lanceolate scales, almost flat above; maturing in 1 year in September-October; stylopodium hairy; basal scar flat;

Bark, twigs and

bark grey, finely fissured, becoming crackled; twigs grey brown, shiny, hairless, angled, with small tawny lenticels; buds pointed, crowded at tip of shoot, 4-9 cm long;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; not quite whithstanding late frost; all types of soils, including poor, calcareous ones, but prefers acidic and well drained ones; long-lived; fast growing;
Miscellaneous -- A.Camus : n 155;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, Section Quercus, Series Roburoid.
-- Differs from Q.pubescens in having a long petiole and hairless twigs;
-- The natural hybrids of Q. petraea are : Q. x cantabrica, Q. x rosacea, Q. x salcedoi, Q. x streimii, Q. x tabajdiana, Q. x trabutii, Q. x viverii.

Subspecies and

--- 4 subspecies:
1/ subsp petraea
the type described

2/ subsp huguetiana Franco & Lopez-Gonzalez 1987 Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 44: 556
= Q.huguetiana (Franco & G.Lopez) Rivas Mart. 1992
= Q. petraea var. viciosoi Villar 1958, nom. inval.
= Q.mas Thore 1803
= Q.petraea subsp mas (Thore) Vicioso 1950
= sometimes considered as hybrid between (petraea x canariensis) and petraea ;
young twig thin, soon hairless, with numerous lenticels; leaves deciduous, 7-12 X 4-9 cm, thicker than those of Q. petraea, oboval, with more acute and patent lobes, deep and narrow sinuses; hairless adaxially; at first shortly pubescent beneath, becoming glabrous or with some long hairs along midrib; 8-12 vein pairs, without sinusal veins (or with few basal ones); slender, regular tertiary veins; petiole sulcate 1-3 cm long; male catkins 7-10 cm; basal cup scales knobby, broadly oval, with suddenly acuminate tip; bud 5-8 mm; with ciliate scales; stipules strongly hairy, often persistent; Catalonia ; South France (?).

3/ subsp iberica : see Q.iberica

4/ subsp pinnatiloba (K.Koch) Menitsky 1972 Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 9: 112
= Q.pinnatiloba K.Koch 1849 (A. Camus = n 157)
= Q.cedrorum Kotschy 1862 (A. Camus = n 161)
= Q. robur var. cedrorum (Kotschy) A.DC 1864
= Q.sessiliflora var. cedrorum (Kotschy) Boiss. 1879
= Q.abietum Kotschy ex A.DC 1864
= Q.subalpina Kotschy 1864
= Q.vulcanica Boiss. & Heldr. ex Kotschy 1860 Eich. Eur. Orient. t. 18
may reach 9-10 m tall; crown rounded; leaves 10-19 x 5-10 cm, oblong, flat, hairless above, yellowish tomentose beneath (sometimes only along midrib); 5-10 pairs of lanceolate, narrow, pointed lobes with sinuses rather deep (reaching more than halfway to the midrib); acorn 2 m, half-round cup; twigs hairless; bark dark, furrowed; hardy; all types of soils;
SW and C Turkey; Syria; to 2700 m;
May be confused with Q.x vulcanica Borzi 1905, hybrid between Q.pubescens and Q.frainetto.

--- Q.petraea subsp medwediewii (A.Camus)Menitsky 1968 Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 5: 87
= Q. lanuginosa subsp medwediewii A.Camus
= Q. calcarea Troitzky 1931 not Gand.
is for Menitsky a true species, with pubescence denser than type, sinus deeper (1/3 to 3/4 to the midrib) ; young shoots, petioles and leaves undersides are at first densely pubescent (naked eye), becoming glabrescent except at leaf base and veins axils. It is for Menitsky the result of introgression with Q.pubescens.
For Govaerts & Frodin, it a synonym of Q.iberica.

--- several varieties :
var. louettei Petz. & Kirchn. 1864, with narrow leaves marginally weakly or not at all lobed;
- var. platyphylla, with sinuses less deep, allways obtuse;
- var. globosa, with subglobose acorn, 1.2-1.5 cm in diameter;
- var. laciniata, with long, pointed lobes, and deep sinuses;