Oaks of the World

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  Quercus suber
Author L. 1753
Synonyms bivonana Guss. 1844
occidentalis J.Gay 1856
suber var. occidentalis (J.Gay) Laguna 1883
suber subsp occidentalis (J.Gay) A.Camus 1938
suberosa Salisb. in A.DC 1864 nom. illeg.
subera St-Lag. 1880
suber var. crinita Pers. 1807
Local names chêne-liège ; durier ; corcier ; sioure ; alcornoque ;
Range South Europe, North Africa;
Growth habit may reach 20 m tall, with trunk 1.5 m in diameter, but most often smaller; trunk and branches tortuous; branches may lay on the ground;
Leaves 2.5-7 x 1.5-4 cm; evergreen; oval; hard, leathery; apex pointed; base rounded; margin wavy, sometimes entire, with very shallow, spiny lobes; dark green, hairless above; blue green, densely pubescent beneath; 5-7 vein pairs at an angle less than 45° with midrib; petiole hairy 0.8-2 cm long;
Flowers early summer, on new shoots; numerous male catkins, erected at first, then drooping, yellow, with a tomentose rachis; male flowers with 5-6 stamens; female catkins 1-3 cm long, with tomentose rachis; female flowers perianth with 4-6 obtuse, tomentose lobes, and 3 short, glabrous styles;
Fruits acorn 1.5-3 cm long; ovoid; short peduncle; enclosed almost 1/2 by cup; cup conical, deep, with long, spreading scales; maturing in 1 year;

Bark, twigs and

bark furrowed, corky; young twigs pubescent first year, becoming smooth, dark grey during 5 years; bud ovoid, small (2 mm long), dark purple;
Hardiness zone, habitat not quite hardy (withstands -15° C); prefers lime-free soils; slow-growing;
Miscellaneous -- A. Camus : n° 110;
-- Sub-genus Cerris, Section Cerris, subsection Suber (with crenata);
-- The natural hybrids of Q. suber are : Q. x celtica, Q. x hispanica, Q. x morisii, Q. x pacensis, Q. x coscojosuberiformis

Subspecies and

--- Q.occidentalis J.Gay 1856
= Q. suber var. occidentalis (J.Gay) Laguna 1883 or Mouillef. 1908
= Q. suber subsp occidentalis (J.Gay) Bonnier & Layens 1894
better hardiness; acorn annual; leaves sometimes deciduous; acorn scales short and appressed; Atlantic Coast of South Europe, Morocco;
for Govaerts & Frodin it is a synonym of Q.suber.

--- Q.bivonana Guss. 1844 Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 604 1844.
= Q. suber var. bivonana (Guss.) Parl. 1867
For Govaerts, 2003, it could be actually a hybrid between Q.pubescens and Q.suber, in Sicily. (Sometimes written "bivoniana"). But this taxon resembles a lot Q. x crenata 'Waasland Select', so it could be cerris X suber