Oaks of the World

General data Classifications List of species Local names Back to
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  Quercus x hispanica
Author Lam. 1785 Encycl. (Lamarck), 1(2): 723.

hispanica Lam. var. a [gibraltarica sub de Gibraltar] Lam. 1785
pseudosuber Santi 1795
pseudosuber Santi var.(?) tlemcenensis A.DC. 1864
pseudosuber Santi var. gibraltarica A.DC. 1864
hispanica Lam. var. gibraltarica Lam. ex A.DC. 1864
cerris var. lucombeana Loud. 1838
x lucombeana Holway 1772
cerris var. fulhamensis 1838
x fulhamensis Steud. 1841
x pseudocerris Lojac. 1907, not Boiss. 1853, nec Rouy 1910
x turneri A.DC not Willd.

cerris x suber

Local names false Spanish cork-oak; Lucombe's oak
Growth habit 15 m; reaches sometimes to 30 m, with a trunk 2 m in diameter;

4 to 8.5 cm long, 3-4 cm wide; semi-evergreen; from oval-lanceolate (most often) to oval-oblong or oval; apex always pointed; base cuneate or truncate; margin always with 5-9 regular mucronate lobes, and sinuses deeper near the middle of the blade; adaxially shiny green, sparsely stellate pubescent; abaxially grey-green, with a tomentum made of trichomes with 6-11 rays more than 200 microns long; 6-10 vein pairs at an angle of 30-45° with the midrib; petiole 1 cm long, pubescent;


acorn oblong, 2.5 cm long, brown, with apex slightly depressed; peduncle 1 cm long, thick, tomentose; enclosed 1/3 or 1/2 by cup; cupscales slender, sinuous, 0.2-0.5 cm long, not appressed (at least near apex), curved backward; bitter; maturing in 2 years;

Bark, twigs and

bark variable : light grey, fissured or smooth, or in more or less corky plates; young twigs grey-brown, at first densely pubescent then glabrous; terminal buds with less scales than the lateral ones;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; all types of soils;
Miscellaneous -- Section Cerris, subsection Suber (with suber).

-- Polymorphous species, depending on whether Q. cerris or Q. suber is dominating; which has led to the description of a lot of species, subspecies, varieties and formas;

Subspecies and

-- Q. x turneri A.DC (not Willd.) is synonym of Q. x hispanica, whereas the species named Q. x turneri Willd. is actually a cultivar (= Quercus 'Turneri') of an artificial hybrid between Q. ilex and Q. robur (see the description here); but for Govaerts & Frodin, 1998, Q. turneri A.DC is synonym of Q. x pseudoturneri C.K.Schneider, while this name is considered everywhere as synonym of the cultivar 'Turneri' !

-- Q. pseudocerris Boiss. 1853 is a synonym of Q. cerris, and Q. pseudocerris Rouy 1910 in a non-resolved name.

-- Q. x hispanica is strongly threatened with extinction : only ca. 1000 plants remains in Italy, where it is protected, and a few in France. Recent (2018) genetic studies indicate that this taxon may represent the remainder of the ancestral form from which Q. suber evolved, rather than a hybrid between Q. suber and Q. cerris.