Oaks of the World

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  Quercus x turneri
Author Willd. 1809 Enum. Pl. 975
Synonyms ilex x robur
= austriaca var. sempervirens hort.
= sempervirens hort.
= glandulifera Mast. not Bl.
Local names "Turner's oak"
Growth habit 15 m ; spreading crown, branched from low on the trunk;
Leaves 4-11cm long, semi-evergreen, weakly toothed near apex, shallowly lobed, leathery, dark lustrous green above, base cuneate; petiole 0.4 to 0.8cm long;
Fruits acorns 2cm long, several on a tomentose stalk to 7cm;

Bark, twigs and

bark purplish grey, smooth, becoming shallowly ridged;
Hardiness zone, habitat
Miscellaneous -- Garden origin, born during the 18th centuty in Essex (Turner's nurseries); propagation only by grafting; t he cultivar 'Pseudo-turneri '(also known under other names : Q.austriaca sempervirens, Q.pseudo-turneri Schneid. and Q.aizoon Koehne) is the most often cultivated, with leaves a little larger than the type;

-- For A.Camus, one can separate 2 species depending on whether ilex dominates robur or vice versa :
1/ ilex > robur
= x turneri Willd. 1899
2/ ilex < robur
= x pseudoturneri C.K.Schneider 1904
= turneri var. pseudoturneri Elwes and Henry 1910
= x aizoon Koehne 1904

-- For Govaerts & Frodin (1998) it is quite different : they distinguish :
1/ Q.x turneri Willd.
= Q.'Turneri' (the species described above)
2/ Q.x turneri A.DC
= Q.x hispanica Lam., now named Q. x crenata Lam.
= Q.x turneri var. pseudoturneri (C.K.Schneid.) Elwes and Henry
= Q.cerris X Q.suber

Subspecies and