Oaks of the World

General dataClassificationsList of speciesLocal namesBack to
home page

  Quercus fruticosa
Author Brot. 1805 Fl. Lusit. 2: 31

Q.lusitanica Lam. 1785 Encycl. 1: 719 (nomen ambiguum), not Webb. nor Boiss.
baetica H.Buek 1874, not Villar 1938
brachycarpa Kotschy ex A.DC 1864
faginea subsp lusitanica (Lam.)
Maire 1931
fruticosa var. vulgaris (Cout.) A.Camus 1939
glauca Bosc ex Loisel 1825
humilis Lam. 1783 nom. illeg. not Miller 1768
lusitanica var. humilis (Lam.) Elwes & Henry 1910
lusitanica subsp. valentina (Cav.) O.Schwarz 1936
muricata Palau ex Willk. & Lange 1862
ovalifolia Bosc ex Pers. 1807
prasina Bosc ex Pers. 1807 (see below...)
rigida K.Koch ex A.DC 1864, not Willd. 1805
undulata K.Koch 1847, nom. illeg.
valentina Cav. 1793
zang Dippel 1891

Local names
Range Southwest Spain; Central and South Portugal; Morocco;
Growth habit usually low shrub to 0.3 high, reaching rarely 2-3 m; spreading crown; tortuous branches;
Leaves 3-6 cm long x 1.2-3.5; semi-evergreen; leathery; oboval-oblong or oboval-elliptic; apex obtuse; base rounded or cordate; margin seldom entire or dentate in the apical 2/3 or half (4-6 pairs of teeth curved upward); the 1/3 basal (or often more) is always entire, which is an interesting feature to identify this species and its hybrids; lustrous above with solitary, multiradiate and stellate hairs, becoming glabrous; whitish, somewhat glaucous, densely hairy beneath (multiradiate and fascicled hairs), especially along veins; 5-9 parallel vein pairs; very short petiole, less than 5 mm long, most often pubescent;
Flowers April-May; male catkin 3-5 cm long, hairy; perianth of the male flower with 6-7 ciliate, pointed lobes; few female flowers, perianth with 6-8 pubescent lobes; 3 very short, divergent styles;
Fruits small oblong acorn to 1.5 cm long and 1 cm wide, stalkless or on a short, hairy peduncle; cup 1.2-1.6 cm in diameter, 0.8 cm high, covered with narrow convex scales; maturing in 1 year;

Bark, twigs and

bark rough, scaly; twig becoming glabrous, red brown, shiny; bud with pubescent scales;
Hardiness zone, habitat not quite hardy; withstands -10°C; prefers moist soils;

-- A. Camus : tome 2, p. 168, n° 151;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, Section Quercus, Series Roburoid;

-- The specific name "lusitanica" must be avoided: it is too much ambiguous because applied to several species:
1/ Q.lusitanica Webb and auctores = Q.faginea Lam.
2/ Q.lusitanica Boiss. = Q.infectoria Oliv.
3/ Q.lusitanica Lam. = Q.fruticosa Brot.

-- The term "undulata" inspired numerous Authors ! One can list the following :
Q.undulata Engelm 1878 (= Q.sinuata Walt.),
Kit.1863 (= Q.pubescens Willd.),
Benth. 1841 (= Q.benthamii A.DC),
Q.undulata K.Koch 1847 (= Q.lusitanica Lam.),
Torr 1827 (= Q.x undulata complex Little 1979),
Sarg., and A.DC ( describing more or less Q.x pauciloba ...),
Q.undulata S. Wats. (= Q.gambelii Nutt.) ;

-- The specific name "valentina" has been applied to various species :
Q.valentina Cav. 1793 = Q.fruticosa
Q.valentina K.Koch 1849 = Q.infectoria
Q.valentina Lam. ex Steudel 1821 = Q.velutina

-- For F.M. Vázquez & al, 2018, Q. x prasina Bosc ex Pers. 1807 (Syn. Pl. [Persoon], 2(2): 568, n. 29). pro sp., is a hybrid between Q. coccifera and Q. faginea See Q. x prasina

Subspecies and

drawing of Q. fruticosa