Oaks of the World

General data Classifications List of species Local names Back to
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  Quercus virginiana
Author Mill. 1768 Gard. Dict. ed. 8 16
Synonyms andromeda Riddell 1853
hemisphaerica hort. ex Endl. 1848
phellos var. obtusifolia Lam. 1785
phellos var. sempervirens Marshall 1785
sempervirens Walt. 1788, (not Mill.)
virens Ait. 1789
virginiana var. eximea Sarg. 1918
Local names live oak ; southern live oak ;
Range SE U.S.A.; 0-200 m; introduced in Europe in 1739;
Growth habit 10-18 m tall; trunk to 1 m in diameter; crown spreading, wider than high; branches horizontal from low on the trunk; sometimes rhizomatous shrub;
Leaves 2.5-10 x 1.8-5 cm; semi-evergreen; lanceolate to oboval; leathery; apex rounded, sometimes acute; base cuneate; margin entire, rarely toothed, often rolled under; young leaves are sometimes toothed and shallowly lobed; dark shiny green above; densely pubescent beneath; petiole pubescent 0.2-1.3 cm long;
Flowers March to May; male carkins drooping, 5-8 cm long;
Fruits acorn 1.5-2.5 cm long, barrel-shaped, narrow, blackish, mucronate at apex; 3 to 5 together; stalk 1-2 cm long; enclosed 1/3 by cup; cup with greyish, slightly tomentose scales; maturing in 1 year; cotyledons connate;

Bark, twigs and

bark dark grey brown, or blackish, rough, ridged; twigs brown, slender, cylindrical, smooth; buds dark red brown, subglobose, 1-2 mm long;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; prefers lime-free, dry, loamy soils, even salted; long-lived;
Miscellaneous -- A. Camus : n 170 ;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, Section Virentes;
-- Hybridizes with Q.bicolor (= x
nessiana), Q.durandii, Q.lyrata (= x comptoniae), Q.stellata, Q. macrocarpa (=burnetensis) ;
-- The other species of the Virentes sectioin are : Q.minima, Q.geminata, Q. brandegeei, Q. oleoides, Q. cubana and Q.fusiformis ;

Subspecies and

There are 3 varieties, that are today considered as true species :

1/_ var. geminata (Small) Sarg. 1918   (A. Camus 173)
= Q.geminata Small 1897 Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 438
= Q. virginiana var. maritima (Chapm..)
Sarg. 1895
= Q. virens var. maritima Chapm. 1860
= Q. virginiana var. grandifolia Sarg. 1918
= Q. geminata var. grandifolia (Sarg.) Trel. 1924
sand live oak ;
evergreen; 9-10 m tall or sometimes more, but may be also rhizomatous; bark dark, thick, ridged; twigs yellowish, slightly tomentose, becoming hairless and grey; buds dark, globose, 1-3 mm in diameter; leaves thick, leathery, with big veins, 3-6 x 1-3 cm, with margin strongly reticulate, dark green above, dull grey and densely tomentose beneath; petiole hairy 0.3-2 cm long; acorn 1.2-2 cm long, frequently paired, maturing in 1 year; Coasts of SE U.S.A.; numerous varieties;

2/_ var. fusiformis (Small) Sarg.
= see
Q.fusiformis Small

3/_ var. minima (Small) Sarg.
= see
Q.minima Small