Oaks of the World

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  Quercus velutina
Author Lam. 1785 Encycl. 1: 721
Synonyms coccinea var. tinctoria (W.Bartram) A.DC 1864
discolor Aiton 1789
missouriensis Ashe 1917
magnifica Dippel 1891
nigra Du Roi not L.
rubra var. tinctoria (W.Bartram) Kuntze 1891
tinctoria W. Bartram 1794
valentina Lam. ex Steud. 1821
velutina var. missouriensis (Ashe) Sarg. 1922
velutina f. missouriensis (Ashe) Trel. 1924
Local names black oak ; yellow barked oak ; smoothbark oak ;
Range Eastern USA; to 1500 m; introduced in Europe in 1800;
Growth habit 20-30 m tall; trunk to 1 m in diameter and more; crown open, narrow; spreading branches;
Leaves 10-23 x 7.5-15 cm; leathery; apex pointed; base cuneate; margin with 5-9 broad bristle-tipped lobes (the terminal two are often unequal, or there are 2 terminal lobes), with deep sinuses U-shaped; both sides shiny; dark green above; paler beneath with yellowish brown pubescence, sometimes only with tufts of hairs at vein axils; stout yellow petiole 4-6 cm long;
Flowers spring
Fruits acorn 1.5-2 cm long; ellipsoid; enclosed 1/2 by thick, bowl-shaped cup with loose, rusty brown scales; maturing in 2 years;

Bark, twigs and

bark dark grey, with orangish furrows, thick; bitter; twigs red brown; terminal bud 6-12 mm, pentagonal in cross-section, grey pubescent;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; prefers sandy, lime-free soils, even dry ones; fast-growing;
Miscellaneous -- "velutina" refers to the velutinous surface of young leaves;
-- A.Camus : n° 424;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, section Lobatae, Series Coccineae;

-- The name "valentina" has been used to name different species :
Q.valentina Cav. 1793 = Q.fruticosa
Q.valentina K.Koch 1849 = Q.infectoria
Q.valentina Lam. ex Steudel 1821 = Q.velutina

Subspecies and
numerous hybrids, among them :
x bushii = with Q.marilandica ;
x paleolithicola = with Q.ellipsoidalis ;
x willdenowiana = with Q.falcata ;
x rehderi = with Q.ilicifolia ;
x leana = with Q.imbricaria ;
x cocksii = with Q.laurifolia ;
x vaga = with Q.palustris ;
x filialis = with Q.phellos ;