Oaks of the World

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  Quercus mannifera
Author Lindl. 1840 Bot. Reg. 26: t. 40
Synonyms sessiliflora Salisb. var. cedrorum DC. 1864 pp
sessiliflora Salisb. var. pinnatifida Boiss. 1879
pinnatiloba C.Koch 1849
cedrorum Kotschy 1862
sessiliflora var. mannifera (Lindl.) Boiss. 1879
robur var. mannifera (Lindl.) Bruttini 1930
x mannifera O.Schwarz 1936
x mannifera O.Schwarz 1936
komarovii A.Camus 1939
atropatena O.Schwarz & Hess 1938
longifolia K.Koch 1849 nom. inval.
robur var. szovitzii A.DC 1864
robur var. araxina Trautv. 1873
araxina (Trautv)Grossh. 1930
x szovitzii (A.DC) Zabel 1903 illeg.
Local names
Range East Turquey to North Iran; 700-2000 m;
Growth habit shrub (2-6 m ); crown fastigiate; very branched;
Leaves 10-19 cm long, 4-9 cm wide; deciduous; thick; oval-oblong; both sides glabrous, dull grey-green above, yellowish green beneath; base truncate or slightly cordate, often asymmetrically; margin with 5-9 pairs of lobes with narrow sinuses; some stellate hairs near axils at the base; 7-8 vein pairs; few intercalary veins, near the foliar base; petiole 2.5-3.5 cm, hairless;
Fruits cylindrical acorn, 2-3 cm long; peduncle absent or to 2 cm; flat cupule 2 cm in diameter, thick-walled; scales appressed, brown, subacute, oval, grey tomentose; maturing in 1 year;

Bark, twigs and

grey bark remotely furrowed; twigs hairless; buds 5 mm long, glabrous; stipules deciduous, threadlike to lanceolate;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; good on silicious soils;
Miscellaneous -- N 158 in A.Camus;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, Section Quercus, Series Roburoid;
-- The specific name is based on the presence on the leaves of a sugary substance, "manna", produced by action of aphids.
-- This taxon had often been, in the past, considered as a hybrid, mostly with Q. boissieri and Q. iberica, but recent works (M. Avishai) enabled to clarify its taxonomical rank.

Subspecies and

2 varieties can be distinguished in nature:
-- var. mannifera
leaves oblong-elliptic with lobes truncate, shallow, narrow sinuses, without secondary lobes;

-- var. pinnatiloba (C.Koch) Avishai comb. and stat. nov.
leaves ovate, pinnatilobate, wide sinuses between subacute lobes, 1-3 secondary lobes at lobes margin;