Oaks of the World

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  Quercus hartwissiana
Author Stev. 1857 Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 387
Synonyms armeniaca Kotschy 1864 p. p.
stranjensis Turrill 1928
robur var. armeniaca A.DC. 1864
hartwissiana var. macrocarpa (Medw.) A.Camus 1939
Local names
Range South and East Bulgaria; Asia Minor; The Caucasus; 1000-1500 m;
Growth habit 7-9 m in cultivation, but may reach 35 m;
Leaves 7-15 x 3.5-9 cm; oblong to oboval; apex obtuse; base obliquely cordate, often auricled;; 5-10 pairs of short, rounded, fairly equal, rather narrow lobes; shiny dark green, glabrous above; paler, scarcely pubescent beneath, specially along midrib; 7-10 secondary veins pairs, parallel, straight; intercalary veins absent or not evident; petiole 2-3 cm long, hairless;
Fruits acorn 1.8-3 cm long, 1-1.5 cm in diameter; sub-ovoid, mucronate; paired or to 5 together on a large peduncle up to 7 cm; cup 1.5-2 cm in diameter, with thick wall, enclosing 1/3 of nut; scales broad, thin, appressed except at tip, whitish tomentose; ripening October;

Bark, twigs and

bark thick,  finely furrowed, dark reddish brown; twig reddish, hairless; bud 4 mm long, reddish brown, glabrous;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; all types of soils; very fast-growing at first;
Miscellaneous -- A. Camus : tome 2, p. 195, n° 154 ;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, Section Quercus, Series Roburoid;
-- Identical to Q.roburoides Bér., species vanished today, abundant at Pliocene, "ancestor" of Q.petraea, Q.pubescens and Q.robur.

Subspecies and
-- a variety has been described : var. ajudaghiensis Steven;