Oaks of the World

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  Quercus gambelii

Nuttall 1848 J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1: 179

Diagnosis here

Synonyms alba var. gunnisonnii Torr. 1855
albifolia C.H.Muller 1942
confusa Wooton & Standl. 1913
douglasii var. gambelii (Nutt.)A.DC 1864
douglasii var. novomexicana A.DC 1864
eastwoodiae Rydb.1901
gambelii var. gunnisonnii (Torr.) Wenzig 1885
gunnisonii (Torr.)
lesueurii CH Mull. 1942
leptophylla Rydb. 1901
marshii CH Mull 1937.
media Wooton & Standl. 1913 (Camus = n 268) 
nitescens Rydb. 1901
novomexicana (A.DC) Rydb.1901 (Camus = n 272)
obtusifolia Rydb. 1901
submollis Rydb.1901
undulata Torr. var. gambelii (Nutt.) Engelm. 1876
undulata S. Wats. in parte, not Sarg. nor A.DC, Torr.1827, Benth. 1841
undulata var. gunnisonnii (Torr.) Engelm. 1876
utahensis (A.DC) Rydb.1901
utahensis (A.DC) var. submollis (Rydb.) Sarg. 1918
vreelandii Rydb. 1901
Local names Utah's white oak; Colorado shin oak; Gambel oak; Rocky Mountains white oak;
Range S.W. USA.; North Mexico; 1200 m - 3000 m; introduced in Europe in 1894;
Growth habit may reach 20 m tall if single trunk, but more often shrubby, 5 m tall, spreading, multiple trunks;
Leaves 5-15 x 3-8 cm; papery; ovate to obovate or oblong to elliptic; apex rounded; base cuneate or truncate; margin with 3-6 lobes each side, lobes entire or dentate, with an entire or dentate apex, the sinuses between lobes reaching more than half-way to the midrib; lustrous dark green, glabrous above or with some short, sparse hairs; paler, tomentose beneath with 2-5 rayed stellate hairs; red when unfolding; 4-6 vein pairs, slightly raised adaxially, prominent beneath; petiole 1-2 cm, slightly pubescent;
Flowers April to June; male inflorescences 2-3 cm long, flowers with 5-7 stamens; female inflorescence 0.3-0.8 cm, bearing 1-3 flowers;
Fruits acorn 1.2-2.5 cm; ovoid to ellipsoid; singly or paired; subsessile or very shortly stalked; deep, warted, thick cup enclosing to 1/2 or more of nut; maturing in 1 year;

Bark, twigs and

bark furrowed, thick, grey; young twig red brown, minutely greyish pubescent, aging glabrous; bud brown, 3 mm, becoming hairless; stipules deciduous, 4-6 mm long;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; prefers dry sites;
Miscellaneous -- A. Camus : n 273;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, Section Quercus, Subsection Dumosae;
-- William Gambel (1821-1849) was botanist at Philadelphy;

-- Numerous hybrids exist, creating a hybrid population named " Q.x undulata complex " by Little in 1979, to replace the term Q.undulata Torr. 1827; the latter term was applied to a species named "wavyleaf oak", or "Rocky Mountain shin oak"; J.M. Tucker, in 1971, had yet identified the main parents of this species : Q. turbinella, Q.grisea, Q.havardii,Q.mohriana, Q arizonica, Q. gambelii and Q.muehlenbergii; hybrids between Q. gambelii and an evergreen species are often semi-evergreen;

-- The name "undulata" inspired numerous authors ! One can find among them :
Q.undulata Engelm 1878 (= Q.sinuata Walt.),
Kit.1863 (= Q.pubescens Willd.),
Benth. 1841 (= Q.benthamii A.DC),
Q.undulata K.Koch 1847 (= Q.lusitanica Lam.),
Torr 1827 (= Q.x undulata complex Little 1979),
Sarg., et A.DC ( = more or less Q.x pauciloba ...),
Q.undulata S. Wats. (= Q.gambelii Nutt.) ;

-- For some Authors (Spellenberg 1998, S.Valencia-A. 2004), Q.lesueuri is a hybrid between Q.gambelii and Q.arizonica Sarg. (therefore is a synonym of Q.x undulata).

Subspecies and
--- var. bonina Welsh, with large acorns, is probably identical to the type.