Oaks of the World

Classifications List of
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(Hybrids G - L --- Hybrids M - R --- Hybrids S - Z)
x acutidens
Torr. 1858

cornelius-mulleri x engelmannii (for Nixon and Steele in 1980)
= dumosa var. acutidens (Torr.) Wenzig 1885
= macdonaldii var. elegantula Greene
= dumosa var. elegantula (Greene) Jepson
Small shrub less than 6-10 m tall, evergreen, that resembles Q. berberidifolia, but leaves variable, thicker and more leathery, more tomentose beneath (2-6 cm, oboval, margin wavy more than toothed, light dull green and glabrous above, hairy beneath but becoming glabrous when older, with petiole 3- 7 mm) ; acorn 2-2.5 cm, enclosed in warty cup, maturing in 1 year; cotyledons sometimes connate;
American mainland, in front of California Channel Islands (San Luis Rey, San Diego County), at less than 1600m above sea level;

x albescens Rouy
ex A.Camus 1935
ilex x pubescens
= x  subalbescens A.Camus 1939
both twigs and 2-3 mm long buds tomentose; leaves 4-8 x 2,5-4 cm, subleathery, tomentose beneath, base asymmetrical or truncate, apex obtuse, margin wavy, sinuate-dentate, with pointed, irregular teeth; midrib prominent beneath; 5-7 vein pairs; petiole tomentose 0.5-1 cm; fruit on very short pecuncle; cup with appressed pubescent scales; acorn with attenuate apex, stylopodium hairy, basal scare small, stigmas divergent;
SE France; NE Spain;
x alienoides Uyeki 1932 acutissima x aliena
x alienoserratoides T.B.Lee 1961 aliena x mongolica x serrata
Korea ;
x allorgeana A.Camus 1935 faginea x pubescens var. subpyrenaica
Northern Spain;
x alvordiana
Eastwood 1905
douglasii x turbinella or douglasii x john-tuckeri
= dumosa var. alvordiana (Eastw.)
Jepson 1910
no more than 3 m; semipersistent ; leaves 1.5-5 cm, apex rounded, base cuneate, margin weakly lobed and coarsely toothed, glaucous above, minutely tomentose beneath; acorn 2-4 cm, enclosed for 1/4 in cup with warty scales; maturing in 1 year;
California, at 400-1300 m ;
x andegavensis Hy 1895 pyrenaica x robur
= x henriquezii Franco & Vasc. 1954
= x rechinii Hy 1896
usually, Q. pyrenaica is dominant ; twigs are pubescent; buds 4-8 mm, tomentose; leaves tomentose beneath, at least along veins, with petiole tomentose; acorn with peduncle 1-3 cm, tomentose;
France, Spain;
Actually one must distinguish Q. x rechinii, in which Q. robur is dominant ; twigs glabrous; bud glabrescent, 3-5 mm; leaves glabrous on both faces, petiole glabrous; acorn with hairless, 2-4.5 cm peduncle;
x andresii
R. Alonso & al. 1999
faginea X pauciradiata
NW Spain
x andrewsii Sarg. 1918 macrocarpa x undulata
less than 3m tall;
Oklahoma ;
x anselmii Sennen 1928 canariensis X pubescens
= desmotricha O.Schwarz 1936
leaves semi-evergreen, 9-11 cm long, lobed, with 7-8 vein pairs, white tomentose beneath when young, pubescent above with stellate hairs; petiole 2 cm long;
-- For Govaerts & Frodin, it is a synonym of Q. cerrioides, but these Authors are in disagreement with A. Camus and O. Schwarz (among others) who feel that Q. cerrioides is a hybrid between Q. faginea and Q. pubescens.
-- For today's Spanish specialists in hybrid oaks in Spain (Alexis Rosell), Q. x anselmii is more exactly the hybrid between Q. cerrioides and Q. canariensis var. ovata; therefore it differs from the closely related Q. desmotricha (= canariensis var. carpinifolia x pubescens).
x arrimatensis Penas, Llamas, Pérez Morales & Acedo 1997

pauciradiata X petraea


x asheana Little 1943 incana x laevis
= ashei Trel. 1917 nom. nud. ; not Sterrett 1922 nom. illeg.
(ashei Sterret = Q. similis)
x atlantica Ashe 1916 incana x laurifolia (or hemisphaerica)
= x sublaurifolia Trel. ex E.J.Palmer 1948

x audleyensis Henry ilex x petraea
= koehnei Ambrosy ex C.K.Schneid.
= Q. 'Audleyensis'
x autumnalis
Vasquez, Ramos & Doncel 2002
ilex X rotundifolia

x auzandei Gren. & Godron 1855 coccifera x ilex ssp ilex
= coccifera var. auzandei (Gren. & Godr.) Jahand. & Maire 1932
= coccifera ssp auzandei (Gren. & Godr.) Batt. 1890
= x agrifolia Batt. & Trab. 1890
= x trabutiana Maire 1926
= x aquifolia Trab. 1905
= x catalaunica Sennen 1912
= x airensis Franco & Vasc. 1954
= x comari Albert 1902
= x denudata Albert 1902
= x mestoides Reynier in Albert 1902
= x reynieri Albert 1902
= x soluntina Tineo ex Lojac. 1907
= x rouxii A.Camus 1935
-- sometimes written : x auzandrii, or x auzendei
small shrub; leaves evergreen 1.5-2.5 cm x 1.4-2; oblong-elliptic, dark green above, glaucous tomentose beneath; margin wavy with small mucronate teeth; 5-7 vein pairs; petiole hairy, 3.5 cm; cup with appressed, slightly pubescent scales; bud subglobose, with persistent bracts; very rare;
France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria, Sicily, Greece;
For some authors, Q. x rouxii (= Q. x airensis) is a hybrid between Q. coccifera and Q. ilex ssp ballota ; leaves 1.5-2 cm, oblong, wavy, glaucous, tomentose, with minutely toothed margins; cup scales glabrous or nearly so; bud with thin bracts 5 mm long, shortly woolly pubescent;
x baenitzii A.Camus 1939 cerris x pubescens
Italia ;
x basaseachicensis C.H.Muller 1938 depressipes x rugosa
Mexico (Chihuahua) ;
x battandieri A.Camus 1936 coccifera x faginea ssp broteri var. tlemcenensis
= coccifera f. angustifolia Laguna 1883
Algeria ; Spain ;
x beaumontiana Sarg. 1918 falcata x laurifolia
Texas ;
x bebbiana C.K.Schneid. 1904 alba x macrocarpa
Bebb's oak
Height and width to 15 m and more; oval crown; twig corky; leaves tomentose beneath; cup scales tomentose; acorn like Q. alba; hardy;
Eastern USA
x beckyae Gaynor 1987 macrocarpa x prinoïdes
Michigan ;
x beguinotii Gavioli 1935 dalechampii x pubescens
Italy ;
x benderi Baenitz 1903 coccinea x rubra
reaches 25 m tall; intermediate characters between those of parents; beautifull at fall; hardy;
Eastern USA
x bernardensis W.Wolf 1918

prinus (montana) x stellata
discovered in Alabama ; also in Colorado ;

x bimundorum E.J.Palmer 1948 alba x robur
Bimundors oak;
to 20 m tall; acorn reddish; prefers light soils; hardy;
central-west to north-east USA
x blufftonensis Trel. 1917 falcata x laevis
South Carolina;
x brittonii W.T.Davis 1892 ilicifolia x marilandica
= ferruginea hybrida Dippel
shrub or small tree; splendid at fall; leaves lately deciduous; hardy;
Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey ;
x budensis
(Borbas)Borbas 1878
pubescens x virgiliana
x burnetensis Little 1943 macrocarpa x virginiana
= x coloradensis Ashe 1922, nom. illeg.
Texas ;
x bushii Sarg. 1918

marilandica x velutina
9 m ; leaves deciduous, resembling those of marilandica more than those of velutina, oboval, 3-7 lobes, lustrous green above, with light yellow pubescence beneath; bright colors in autumn; hardy; all types of soils; cultivated since 1931 ;
north, center and east USA ;

x byarsii Sudworth 1924

macrocarpa x michauxii
Tennessee ;


x caduca Trel. 1924 incana x nigra
from south-eastern USA to Texas ;
x caesariensis Moldenke 1953 falcata x ilicifolia
New Jersey
x calvescens Vukot. 1883

pubescens x petraea
= Q. pubescens var. streimii (Heuff.) Heuff. 1858
= Q. virgiliana f. streimii (Heuff.) Matyas 1974
= x costae C.Vicioso 1950
= x intercedens Beck 1890
= x lanuginosoides Léveillé 1917, nom. illeg.
= x sauteri Dalla Torre 1909
= x semilanuginosa Borbas 1887
= x streimii Heuffel ex Freyn 1878
= x glabrescens A.Kern. 1876
= x bedoi Simonk. 1887
twisting branchlets; bud 4-6 mm with pinkish, pubescent and ciliate scales; leaves deciduous 5-10 x 3.5-7 cm, lustrous and glabrous above, at first tomentose beneath, becoming glabrous except along midrib; base asymmetrical or truncate; lobed; petiole ca. 0.7-2 cm; 5-7 vein pairs; acorn often avorted, on 5-7 mm, tomentose peduncle; cup enclosing almost all the nut, with dark grey, pubescent scales; stylopodium pubescent; stigmas divergent, with wide obtuse tip;
from north Spain to Romania and Sweden;

--- In Spain, the taxon named Q. x costae is treated as a hybrid between Q. pubescens and
Q. petraea ssp huguetiana; 7-10 vein pairs ; leaves pubescent underneath becoming glabrous; lobes short and often mucronate; cup with greyish pubescent scales;

x cantabrica C.Vicioso 1950 (petraea x pyrenaica) x robur
both twigs and buds glabrous; leaves 10-20 x 8-13 cm, both sides glabrous, terminal lobe elongated, base auricled; small acorn 1.5-2 cm with hairless peduncle 3-5 mm; cup with lanceolate, convex scales reaching beyond the rim; acorn broad, a little longer than the cup, apex depressed (so that the short, pubescent stylopodium is hidden); 4 styles with stigmas divergent at their base;
Northern Spain;
x capesii W.Wolf 1945

nigra x phellos
tall tree; leaves sometimes persistent; prefers moist or wet soils;
New Jersey, South Carolina;

x carrissoana A.Camus 1935 canariensis x robur
Morocco; Spain;
For some Authors (O.Schwarz), it is a synonym of Q. viverii Sennen.
x celtica Vasquez & al. 2003 fruticosa X suber

 Often less than 3 meters tall; Portugal
x cocksii Sarg. 1912 laurifolia x velutina
Louisiana ;
x columnaris Laughlin 1964 palustris x rubra
Illinois ;
x comptoniae Sarg. 1918

lyrata x virginiana
reaches 35 m tall; leaves partially persistent; cup less deep than lyrata;
Texas to Louisiana ;

x coutinhoi Sampaio. 1910 faginea x robur
= x ferreirae A.Camus
= x molleri A.Camus 1934
rarely exceeding 3m;
Portugal ;
x cravenensis Little 1943 incana x marilandica
= x caroliniensis Trel. 1917, nom. illeg.
S.E. USA to Texas ;
x deamii Trel. 1917 macrocarpa x muehlenbergii
tall tree;
= x fallax E.J.Palmer 1948
Eastern USA
x demareei Ashe 1926 nigra x velutina
Arkansas, Louisiana ;
x diosdadoi
Vasquez & al.
pyrenaica X rotundifolia
x discreta Laughlin 1961 shumardii x velutina
Missouri ;
x diversiloba Tharp ex A.Camus 1952 laurifolia x marilandica
Texas ;
x diversifrons Borbas 1887 petraea x virgiliana
x drummondii Liebm. 1854 margaretta x stellata
= x pseudomargarettiae Trel. 1924 (pro sp.)
[also "pseudomargaretta"]
= stellata var. drummondii (Liebm.) Trel. 1924
Drummond post oak , false sand post oak ;
Texas (Cross Timbers region) ;
x dysophylla Benth. 1840 crassifolia x crassipes
= hahnii Trel. 1924  
= dysophylla Née
10 m tall, sometimes more; leaves 5-9cm long, 2-4cm wide; deciduous ; bullate; thick, leathery, oval lanceolate to elliptical, base rounded to cordate, apex pointed; margin entire, undulate, revolute; smooth, bright dark green above with some stellate hairs along midrib; densely tomentose 0.5 mm long beneath; 15-17 pairs of lateral veins, forked and prominent beneath; petiole hairy, coffee-coloured, 3-5mm long; acorn ovoid 1.5 cm, solitary or paired; cupule shallow, half-round, with thin and rounded scales, grey brown, maturing in 1 year; twigs grooved, smooth, pinkish grey; buds ovoid, red brown, 5-9mm long; tender; sub-genus Erythrobalanus ;
Mexico (Michoacan, Hidalgo, Mexico, Veracruz, San Luis Potosi) ; 2000 to 2500 m ;
-- For Govaerts & Frodin, Q. hahnii (A. Camus : n° 308) is a separate species.
-- For today's Mexican Authors (S.Valencia-A., 2004), Q. esperanzae Trel. (= Q. fournieri Trel.) is a synonym of Q. x dysophylla.

x egglestonii Trel. 1924 imbricaria x shumardii
Kentucky, Missouri ;
x elisae Fries canariensis x robur x huguetiana
leaves shape halfway between those of parents;
north-east Spain;
3 varieties are described, depending on the variety of Q. canariensis:
_ var. major: (canariensis var. mirbeckii), leaves 15-20 cm long, with 5 pairs of lobes;
_ var. media: (canariensis var. carpinifolia), leaves 8-10 cm long, with 5 pairs of lobes;
_ var. minor: (canariensis var. ovata), leaves 5-7 cm long, with 3 pairs of lobes;
x eplingii C.H Muller 1938 douglasii x garryana
California ;
x exacta Trel. 1917 imbricaria x palustris
laurelpin oak
glossy foliage; dense canopy; virgorous; tolerate alkaline soils; hardy;
Illinois, Pennsylvania, Indiana ;

x fagineomirbeckii Villar 1938 canariensis x faginea
= x jahandiezii A.Camus 1939
= x pseudofaginea A.Camus 1939
= x marianica C.Vicioso 1950
Spain; Portugal (Serra de Monchique) ; Algeria ; Morocco ;
x fangshanensis Liou 1936

dentata x mongolica ssp crispula (for Liou) ;
would rather be : dentata x aliena var. pekingensis
discovered in Hebei, Henan and Shanxi ;


x faxonii Trel. 1917 alba x Prinoideaees
Eastern USA ;
x fenchengensis H.Wei Jen & L.M.Wang 1984 aliena var. acutiserrata x dentata
China (Liaoning, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui) ;
x fernaldii Trel. 1924

ilicifolia x rubra
= x lowellii Sarg. 1918, nom. inval.
reaches 12 m ; leaves deciduous, similar to Q. ilicifolia;
hardy ; any soil but prefers lime-free; Eastern USA;

x fernowii Trel. 1917 alba x stellata
Eastern USA ;
x filialis Little 1943 phellos x velutina
= x dubia Trel. 1917, not Ashe
= x inaequalis E.J.Palmer & Steyermark 1935
north-center and east of USA ;
x firmurensis Hy 1898 pubescens x pyrenaica
both twigs and 3-5 mm long buds densely tomentose; leaves 5-7 x 3.55 cm, semi-evergreen, glabrescent above, densely tomentose beneath; petiole 0.5-1 cm, tomentose; cup with pubescent, greyish scales; acorn stalkless or with a peduncle shorter than the petiole.
For some Authors, Q. x firmurensis = Q. humilis ssp lanuginosa (Lam.) Franco and Lopez 1987..., thus = Q. pubescens ssp palensis sensu O.Schwarz;
France; Spain;
x fontana Laughlin 1967 coccinea x velutina
Missouri ;
x fontqueri O.Schwarz 1936

pyrenaica x canariensis
tree or shrub; twig sulcate, pinkish brown, tomentose at first, becoming glabrous, with numerous lenticels; bud 4-9 mm, persistent bracts, with pubescent, ciliate scales; leaves subpersistent 7-13 x 4-8 cm, base cordate asymmetrical, leathery, lobed with deep and narrow sinuses, at first pubescent becoming glabrous above, waxy beneath and whitish tomentose along veins; 7-9 vein pairs; petiole slender 1-2 cm, sulcate, hairy obove; male catkins with hairy axis, large oval bracts; cup with appressed, triangular, pointed, tomentose scales; flowering in April-May; rare;
Spain (Catalonia);
-- var. asplenifolia: leaves dark green above, with lobes divided into 2-3 lobules and very deep sinuses.
-- hybridizes with Q. petraea ssp  huguetiana, and with Q. x cerrioides (= Q. x paui C.Vicioso) ;